Cognitive and Metacognitive Skills
In addition to academic content, an academy focuses on cognitive and metacognitive skills. Cognitive skills are those that human beings naturally use to correctly process new information and effectively complete tasks. For example, human beings naturally compare two or more objects or options in order to decide which object or option best fits the desired outcome. Although cognitive skills are, to some degree, hardwired in human beings, direct instruction of cognitive skills can greatly improve a student’s ability to think rigorously and deepen knowledge. Cognitive skills, within the scope of K-‐12 education, are those skills that help students retrieve and comprehend knowledge. Additionally, cognitive skills help students analyze and utilize knowledge in a variety of circumstances. There are two types of cognitive skills in the academy model: cognitive analysis skills and knowledge application skills.
Cognitive Analysis Skills
The cognitive analysis skills in the academy model are listed in figure 4.1.
As is the case with academic skills, cognitive analysis skills have associated proficiency scales. Additional information on this topic are included in the Marzano Academy Implementation Manual (a resource for partner schools).
Knowledge Application Skills
As the name implies, the knowledge application skills require students to apply the content they have learned in situations or situations not specifically addressed in class. The knowledge application skills in the academy model are defined in figure 4.5.
The proficiency scales for the knowledge application skills follow the same format as the cognitive analysis skills. Additional information on this topic are included in the Marzano Academy Implementation Manual (a resource for partner schools).
Metacognitive skills are also addressed in the academy model. Metacognitive skills are defined broadly as those skills that help a person perform both mental and physical actions effectively and efficiently throughout his or her life (especially in difficult situations). In education, these are crucial skills for critical thinking in each subject area. They are also highly transferable between subject areas. The metacognitive skills in the academy model are defined in figure 4.9.
Again, proficiency scales accompany each metacognitive skill. Additional information on this topic are included in the Marzano Academy Implementation Manual (a resource for partner schools).
The Empower system allows for a wide variety of reporting options for both standards‐ referenced and competency‐based approaches.
Relative to the use of Empower, academy teachers should:
- Decide whether they will a standards‐referenced or a competency-based system.
- Determine the exact format that will be used with “report cards” and how to generate